6 states formally join Texas in law­suit defend­ing the secu­ri­ty of the 2020 election


The joining states agree with Texas: the defendant states exploited the COVID-19 pandemic to justify unlawfully enacting last-minute changes and ignoring both federal and state election laws, thus skewing the results of the 2020 General Election.Thu Dec 10, 2020 – 2:42 pm EST

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By LifeSiteNews.com


TEXAS, December 10, 2020 (LifeSiteNews) – Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Utah have formally joined Texas in its Supreme Court suit against Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin—four battleground states who ran illegal and unconstitutional elections. The joining states agree with Texas: the defendant states exploited the COVID-19 pandemic to justify unlawfully enacting last-minute changes and ignoring both federal and state election laws, thus skewing the results of the 2020 General Election. 

“Texas continues to lead the fight to protect election security and integrity, and today I gladly welcome Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Utah to this historic endeavor. By flouting state and federal election laws, the defendant battleground states have tainted the integrity of citizens’ votes across the entire nation,” said Attorney General Ken Paxton. “To restore trust in the integrity of our election process, we must tirelessly defend its security and hold accountable those who discarded our Constitution for their own convenience. Texas is proud to have these states by its side in shining the bright light of justice.” 

Attorney General Paxton filed an original lawsuit in the U.S. Supreme Court on Monday, December 7, arguing that the Supreme Court must require the four defendant-states to conduct their elections in a manner that complies with the Constitution and all federal and state laws

Continued:

In the Supreme Court of the United States
STATE OF TEXAS,
Plaintiff,
v.
COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF
GEORGIA, STATE OF MICHIGAN, AND STATE OF
WISCONSIN,
Defendants.
On Motion for Leave to File Bill of Complaint
MOTION OF STATES OF MISSOURI,
ARKANSAS, LOUSIANA, MISSISSIPPI, SOUTH
CAROLINA, AND UTAH TO INTERVENE AND
PROPOSED BILL OF COMPLAINT IN
INTERVENTION
OFFICE OF THE MISSOURI ERIC S. SCHMITT
ATTORNEY GENERAL Attorney General
Supreme Court Building
P.O. Box 899 D. John Sauer
Jefferson City, MO 65102 Solicitor General
(573) 751-8870 Counsel of Record
John.Sauer@ago.mo.gov
Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Missouri
(additional counsel listed on signature page)
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. The Intervening States Satisfy the Requirements for Intervention As of Right ……………..2
II. The Intervening States Satisfy the Standards
for Permissive Intervention ……………………….5
CONCLUSION …………………………………………………. 5
ii
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
Cases
Anderson v. Celebrezze,
460 U.S. 780 (1983)…………………………………………..3
Anderson v. United States,
417 U.S. 211 (1974)…………………………………………..3
Arizona v. California,
460 U.S. 605 (1983)…………………………………………..2
Commonwealth of Kentucky v. Indiana,
281 U.S. 163 (1930)…………………………………………..4
Delaware v. New York,
507 U.S. 490 (1993)…………………………………………..1
Texas v. New Jersey,
373 U.S. 948 (1963)…………………………………………..1
Trbovich v. United Mine Workers of America,
404 U.S. 528 (1972)…………………………………………..4
United States v. Louisiana,
354 U.S. 515 (1957)……………………………………1, 4, 5
Statutes
U.S. CONST. art. II, § 1, cl. 2………………………………….3
Rules
Fed. R. Civ. P. 24(a)(2) …………………………………………2
iii
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24………………………..2
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24(a) ……………………2
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24(b) ……………………5
1
Motion to Intervene and Brief in Support
The States of Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina, and Utah (“Intervening
States”), through their undersigned counsel,
respectfully file this motion for leave to intervene in
this action and join Plaintiffs’ Bill of Complaint, as
modified by proposed intervenor President Donald J.
Trump, in the event that this Court grants Plaintiff
leave to file the Bill of Complaint. In support of this
Motion, the Intervening States state as follows:
This Court permits States to intervene in original
actions when “the issues in the litigation are so
related to the possible interests of [the intervening
states] … in the subject matter of th[e] suit, that the
just, orderly, and effective determination of such
issues requires that they be adjudicated in a
proceeding in which all the interested parties are
before the Court.” United States v. Louisiana, 354
U.S. 515, 515–16 (1957) (granting Alabama, Florida,
Mississippi, and Texas leave to intervene); see also,
e.g., Delaware v. New York, 507 U.S. 490, 497 (1993)
(permitting Michigan, Maryland, Nebraska, and the
District of Columbia to intervene); Texas v. New
Jersey, 373 U.S. 948 (1963) (granting Florida’s motion
to intervene). The Court’s power to permit
intervention arises from both “the Federal Rules of
Civil Procedure” and the “general equity powers” of
the Court. United States v. Louisiana, 354 U.S. at
515; see also Sup. Ct. R. 17.2 (providing that, in an
original action, “[t]he form of pleadings and motions
prescribed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure is
followed”).
2
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24 permits
intervention as of right and by the Court’s leave. The
Intervening State Plaintiffs satisfy both standards
here, and the Court should grant the motion.
I. The Intervening States Satisfy the
Requirements for Intervention As of Right.
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24(a) provides:
“On timely motion, the court must permit anyone to
intervene who … (2) claims an interest relating to the
property or transaction that is the subject of the
action, and is so situated that disposing of the action
may as a practical matter impair or impede the
movant’s ability to protect its interest, unless existing
parties adequately represent that interest.” Fed. R.
Civ. P. 24(a)(2). The Intervening States satisfy the
standards to intervene in this action as of right.
First, the Intervening States’ Motion is
unquestionably timely. They filed this Motion to
Intervene within three days of the filing of Plaintiff’s
Motion for Leave to File Bill of Complaint, and within
two days of receiving notice of the Motion. In addition,
the Bill of Complaint has not yet been filed, and the
Intervening States seek leave to join it as soon as it is
filed. Accordingly, the request for intervention is filed
at the case’s earliest possible procedural juncture. See
Arizona v. California, 460 U.S. 605, 615 (1983)
(permitting intervention when no adverse party could
show how its interests “would be prejudiced or this
litigation unduly delayed”).
Second, the Intervening States claim an interest
relating to the property or transaction that is the
subject of the action. They share Plaintiff State of
Texas’s and Intervenor Donald J. Trump’s concerns
3
about the unconstitutional administration of the
Presidential election in the Defendant States, and its
impact on voters in the Intervening States. As this
Court has stated, “in the context of a Presidential
election,” actions in the Defendant States “implicate a
uniquely important national interest,” because “the
impact of the votes cast in each State is affected by the
votes cast for the various candidates in other States.”
Anderson v. Celebrezze, 460 U.S. 780, 794–95 (1983).
“For the President and the Vice President of the
United States are the only elected officials who
represent all the voters in the Nation.” Id. Further,
the Intervening States have a strong interest in
ensuring that the unconstitutional administration of
elections in the Defendant States does not
compromise ballot security and unfairly dilute the
votes of voters in the Intervening States. “Every
voter” in a federal election, “has a right under the
Constitution to have his vote fairly counted, without
its being distorted by fraudulently cast votes.”
Anderson v. United States, 417 U.S. 211, 227 (1974).
Third, the Intervening States’ interests may be
impaired or impeded by the disposition of this action.
In the event that this Court grants leave to file the
Bills of Complaint, this Court’s adjudication of the
merits of Plaintiff’s claims would likely impair or
impede the Intervening States’ ability to advance
similar claims and interests, including the claim that
non-legislative actors in each Defendant State
unconstitutionally encroached upon the authority of
the “Legislature thereof” to control the administration
of Presidential elections in that State. U.S. CONST.
art. II, § 1, cl. 2.
4
Fourth, the Intervening States’ interests are not
adequately represented by the existing parties in the
case. The Intervening States do not doubt that
Plaintiff State of Texas will vigorously and effectively
litigate this case, but the Attorney General of each
individual State is best situated to represent the
interests of that State and its People. The
requirement for adequacy of representation is
“minimal,” Trbovich v. United Mine Workers of
America, 404 U.S. 528, 538 n.10 (1972), and the
undersigned Attorneys General respectfully submit
that they are the most adequate representatives of
their respective States. Cf. Commonwealth of
Kentucky v. Indiana, 281 U.S. 163, 173 (1930) (“[B]y
virtue of the original jurisdiction over controversies
between states, [a State] must be deemed to represent
all its citizens.”). Moreover, Plaintiff State of Texas
has consented to the intervention requested in this
Motion, as has counsel for President Trump.
1

1 The Intervening States previously filed an amicus
curiae brief in this case, along with other States, supporting the Motion for Leave to File Bill of Complaint.
Their prior participation as amici curiae is fully consistent with granting them leave to participate as parties if the Court grants the Motion for Leave to File
Bill of Complaint. See, e.g., United States v. Louisiana, 354 U.S. at 515 (granting leave to intervene to
the State of Texas based in part on “the representations made by the State of Texas in its amicus curiae
brief”); see also S. SHAPIRO, K. GELLER, T. BISHOP, E.
HARTNETT & D. HIMMELFARB, SUPREME COURT PRACTICE § 10.10 n.37 (10th ed. 2013).
5
II. The Intervening States Satisfy the
Standards for Permissive Intervention.
In the alternative, the Intervening States satisfy
the standards for permissive intervention under
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 24(b). That Rule
provides that “[o]n timely motion, the court may
permit anyone to intervene who … has a claim or
defense that shares with the main action a common
question of law or fact.” Fed. R. Civ. P. 24(b). For the
reasons stated above, this Motion is unquestionably
timely, and the Intervening States seek to join the
Plaintiff’s Bill of Complaint with the additions and
modifications of President Trump, so it is
unquestionable that they share “a claim or defense
that shares with the main action a common question
of law or fact.” Id. Given the great importance of the
constitutional issues raised in this case, the
Intervening States should also be granted permissive
intervention as well.
CONCLUSION
For the reasons stated, the Intervening States
request that this Court grant them leave to intervene
as Plaintiffs in the event that the Court grants leave
to file the Bill of Complaint.
6
December 10, 2020 Respectfully submitted,
ERIC S. SCHMITT
Missouri Attorney General
/s/ D. John Sauer
D. John Sauer
Solicitor General
Counsel of Record
Justin D. Smith
Deputy Attorney General
OFFICE OF THE MISSOURI
ATTORNEY GENERAL
Supreme Court Building
207 West High Street
P.O. Box 899
Jefferson City, MO 65102
John.Sauer@ago.mo.gov
(573) 751-8870
Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Missouri
LESLIE RUTLEDGE
Arkansas Attorney General
/s/ Leslie Rutledge
Leslie Rutledge
OFFICE OF THE
ARKANSAS
ATTORNEY GENERAL
323 Center Street
Suite 200
Little Rock, AR 72201
(501) 682-2007
C.cox@arkansasag.gov
7
Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Arkansas
JEFF LANDRY
Louisiana Attorney General
/s/ Jeff Landry
Jeff Landry
Louisiana Department of
Justice
1885 N. 3rd St.
Baton Rouge, La 70802
LouisianaAG@ag.louisana.
gov
(225) 326-6757
Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Louisiana
LYNN FITCH
Mississippi Attorney General
/s/ Lynn Fitch
Lynn Fitch
MISSISSIPPI ATTORNEY
GENERAL’S OFFICE
P.O. Box 220
Jackson, MS 39205-0220
Telephone: (601) 359-3680
Lynn.fitch@ago.ms.gov
Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Mississippi
8
ALAN WILSON
South Carolina Attorney General
/s/ Alan Wilson
Alan Wilson
OFFICE OF THE
ATTORNEY GENERAL
Post Office Box 11549
Columbia, SC 29211
(803) 734-3970
info@scag.gov
Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff South Carolina
SEAN D. REYES
Utah Attorney General
/s/ Sean D. Reyes
Sean D. Reyes
OFFICE OF THE
ATTORNEY GENERAL
350 North State Street
Suite 230
Salt Lake City, UT 84114
Telephone: (801) 366-0260
uag@agutah.gov
Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Utah
9
No. 22O155, Original
In the Supreme Court of the United States
STATE OF TEXAS,
Plaintiff,
v.
COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, STATE OF
GEORGIA, STATE OF MICHIGAN, AND STATE OF
WISCONSIN,
Defendants.
On Motion for Leave to File Bill of Complaint
BILL OF COMPLAINT IN INTERVENTION OF
MISSOURI, ARKANSAS, LOUSIANA,
MISSISSIPPI, SOUTH CAROLINA AND UTAH
OFFICE OF THE MISSOURI ERIC S. SCHMITT
ATTORNEY GENERAL Attorney General
Supreme Court Building
P.O. Box 899 D. John Sauer
Jefferson City, MO 65102 Solicitor General
John.Sauer@ago.mo.gov
(573) 751-8870
Counsel of Record

Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Missouri
(additional counsel listed on signature page)
10
BILL OF COMPLAINT IN INTERVENTION
The States of Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, South Carolina and Utah seek to
intervene in an original action proposed by the State
of Texas against the States of Pennsylvania, Georgia,
Michigan, and Wisconsin. Donald J. Trump,
President of the United States and candidate for reelection to the Office of the Presidency at the general
election that was held on November 3, 2020, has
sought to intervene and proposed his own Bill of
Complaint in Intervention. The Intervening State
Plaintiffs adopt by reference and join in the Bill of
Complaint submitted by Plaintiff State of Texas as
modified by President Trump’s Bill of Complaint in
Intervention in all aspects, including the statements
of Jurisdiction, the Parties, Additional Facts, Count I
(alleging a violation of the Elector’s Clause) and the
Prayer for Relief. The Intervening States further
state:
PARTIES

  1. The State of Missouri, an Intervening State
    Plaintiff, is a sovereign State of the United States of
    America.
  2. The State of Arkansas, an Intervening State
    Plaintiff, is a sovereign State of the United States of
    America.
  3. The State of Louisiana, an Intervening State
    Plaintiff, is a sovereign State of the United States of
    America.
    11
  4. The State of Mississippi, an Intervening State
    Plaintiff, is a sovereign State of the United States of
    America.
  5. The State of South Carolina, an Intervening
    State Plaintiff, is a sovereign State of the United
    States of America.
  6. The State of Utah, an Intervening State
    Plaintiff, is a sovereign State of the United States of
    America.
    December 10, 2020 Respectfully submitted,
    ERIC S. SCHMITT
    Missouri Attorney General
    /s/ D. John Sauer
    D. John Sauer
    Solicitor General
    Counsel of Record
    Justin D. Smith
    Deputy Attorney General
    OFFICE OF THE MISSOURI
    ATTORNEY GENERAL
    Supreme Court Building
    207 West High Street
    P.O. Box 899
    Jefferson City, MO 65102
    John.Sauer@ago.mo.gov
    (573) 751-8870
    Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Missouri
    12
    LESLIE RUTLEDGE
    Arkansas Attorney General
    /s/ Leslie Rutledge
    Leslie Rutledge
    OFFICE OF THE
    ARKANSAS
    ATTORNEY GENERAL
    323 Center Street
    Suite 200
    Little Rock, AR 72201
    (501) 682-2007
    C.cox@arkansasag.gov
    Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Arkansas
    JEFF LANDRY
    Louisiana Attorney General
    /s/ Jeff Landry
    Jeff Landry
    Louisiana Department of
    Justice
    1885 N. 3rd St.
    Baton Rouge, La 70802
    LouisianaAG@ag.louisana.
    gov
    (225) 326-6757
    Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Louisiana
    LYNN FITCH
    Mississippi Attorney General
    13
    /s/ Lynn Fitch
    Lynn Fitch
    MISSISSIPPI ATTORNEY
    GENERAL’S OFFICE
    P.O. Box 220
    Jackson, MS 39205-0220
    Telephone: (601) 359-3680
    Lynn.fitch@ago.ms.gov
    Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Mississippi
    ALAN WILSON
    South Carolina Attorney General
    /s/ Alan Wilson
    Alan Wilson
    OFFICE OF THE
    ATTORNEY GENERAL
    Post Office Box 11549
    Columbia, SC 29211
    (803) 734-3970
    info@scag.gov
    Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff South Carolina
    SEAN D. REYES
    Utah Attorney General
    /s/ Sean D. Reyes
    Sean D. Reyes
    OFFICE OF THE
    ATTORNEY GENERAL
    350 North State Street
    Suite 230
    14
    Salt Lake City, UT 84114
    Telephone: (801) 366-0260
    uag@agutah.gov
    Counsel for Intervening State Plaintiff Utah

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