Dear friend in Christ, below is the short version of One God, having just One set of Faith beliefs and desiring only the One true Church which he did establish. Eph. 4:1-7
Here is why I choose those specific passages.
Mt. 10:1-8  “And having called his twelve disciples together, he gave them power over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of diseases, and all manner of infirmities.  And the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, Simon who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother,  James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew the publican, and James the son of Alpheus, and Thaddeus,  Simon the Cananean, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.  These twelve Jesus sent: commanding them, saying: Go ye not into the way of the Gentiles, and into the city of the Samaritans enter ye not.  But go ye rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.  And going, preach, saying: The kingdom of heaven is at hand.  Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out devils: freely have you received, freely give”
First we note that Jesus is speaking directly to, and exclusively to his “disciples”; who a few words later are identified as His 12 Apostles, whom he names, leading off with “Peter FIRST”.;
Secondly we see that the terms “disciples” and “Apostles” are used interchangeably.
Then another point of critical understanding, Jesus shares [to a lesser degree] some of his Godly powers of healing and even raising the dead; which the bible reports that both Peter and Paul actually did. Peter: Acts 9:39-40 & Paul Acts 30:9-10; from verse #8
Then take note of verses 6 & 7; where Christ’s issues the mandate to his Apostles to go only to “the house of Israel.”
The second passage I suggested is Mt. 16:13-19
“ And Jesus came into the quarters of Caesarea Philippi: and he asked his disciples, saying: Whom do men say that the Son of man is?  But they said: Some John the Baptist, and other some Elias, and others Jeremias, or one of the prophets.  Jesus saith to them: But whom do you say that I am?  Simon Peter answered and said: Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God.  And Jesus answering, said to him: Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jona: because flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but my Father who is in heaven.  And I say to thee: That thou art Peter; and upon [YOU] this rock I will build my church,[singular] and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give to thee [ALL OF] the keys of the [MY] kingdom of whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven.  Then he commanded his disciples, that they should tell no one that he was Jesus the Christ. heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and: whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven.”
These passages may well be the most frequently quoted in the bible, and very often the least accepted and understood.
First Christ choose carefully the location where he would establish His new Faith, in his One Church with Peter as its head. Jesus was following his own Old Testament Traditions of just One Chosen People; being led by one chosen MAN. From Abraham, Moses, the Judges, Kings like David and Solomon, and the Prophets like Isaiah; always one, man to lead his one chosen people.
Secondly, Christ choose the location of Caesarea Philippi carefully and with purpose: This was the location of the area’s largest and most frequented Pagan Temple. So by choosing this spot Christ was implying that the purpose of his new One Faith in One Church, was to defeat Paganism. [the term “Paganism”] here means all faith beliefs except this one new Faith Christ was Teaching and demanding adherence too.]
Third: It is biblically indisputable that Christ singled out Peter for this task of leadership. This will be proven in future lessons. It is notable that Christ points out that when Simon-Peter points Jesus out as “THEE CHRIST”, that he has been enlightened and guided by “My Father”… [Infused Knowledge].
Forth: Christ then specifies that he intends to give to Peter “ALL of the Key’s,” meaning ALL Access to His Kingdom [Heaven.], and that the gates to hell would NEVER prevail against her [Mother Church].
Fifth: Are the absolute Powers of “binding and or loosing”; which at that time and place affirms two teachings:  unlimited powers of governance. The ability, even the obligation to makes laws that bind, and to change them later if necessary; answerable ONLY to the King of that walled in city which actually does have gates and keys. Jerusalem was such a city then and now. The king of that city [which represents heaven and Christ] commonly appointed a MAN to run the city in his name].
 The second meaning on these terms deals with Powers and authority to forgive sins in God’s name: 1 John 1: 5-6; 1 John 5: 16-17 & John 20: 19-23. Also in future lessons. In both cases Christ commits the Trinity to accept and obey what this man, and his Successors bind and loose.
John 17:11-26 [This is a last minute prayer by Jesus in his humanity, to the Divinity of His Father]
11] And now I am not in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep them in thy name whom thou has given me; that they may be one, as we also are. …  I have given them thy word, and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world; as I also am not of the world.  I pray not that thou shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep them from evil. [God cannot deny Himself]  They are not of the world, as I also am not of the world.  Sanctify them in truth. [This means to guide and to protect them] Thy word is truth.  As thou hast sent me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. [This means exactly what it says: Christ sends them with the SAME Powers and Authority as his Father had sent Him]  And for them do I sanctify myself, that they also may be sanctified in truth. Here Christ gives himself as the warranty of THEM not ever teaching in error on Faith beliefs and Moral issues]  And not for them only do I pray, but for them also who through their word shall believe in me;  That they all may be one, [Here Christ affirms that it is his Desire to have only One Church with One set of Faith beliefs] as thou, Father, in me, and I in thee; that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.  And the glory which thou hast given me, I have given to them; that they may be one, as we also are one:  I in them, and thou in me; that they may be made perfect in one: and the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast also loved me.  Father, I will that where I am, they also whom thou hast given me may be with me; that they may see my glory which thou hast given me, because thou hast loved me before the creation of the world. …  And I have made known thy name to them, and will make it known; that the love wherewith thou hast loved me, may be in them, and I in them.”
Once again we see in v-11, Christ speaking about His Apostles and ONLY His Apostles [and successors by absolute necessity as we shall soon see], directly and exclusively. And He specifically notes His desire for One Church only.
In v-14 makes known “that the world will hate them”
verses. 15-17 Has Christ in His human nature, asking His Father [Divine Nature] to keep them from teaching on Faith matters and or Morals in error. It must be understood that Jesus who is god cannot deny himself this request.
v-18 is SHOCKING! Here Christ confirms that He is sending THEM with the same authority and some of the powers that the Father sent Jesus Himself. This is repeated again in John 20:21
v-19 has Jesus giving Himself as the Personal warranty of the “SEE of Peter” teaching in error on all Faith belief matters and also Moral issues.
v-20 has Jesus praying that ALL will hear and Obey her Teachings [the Church’s]
v-21 & 22 For a second time we see Jesus praying for just One Church, with just one set of Faith beliefs.
v-26 is a version of “My Peace I leave with you.”
Mark 14: 15-16 “ At length he appeared to the eleven as they were at table: and he upbraided them with their incredulity and hardness of heart, because they did not believe them who had seen him after he was risen again.  And he said to them: Go ye into the whole world, and preach the gospel to every creature.”
Note the change in the final Mandate Jesus gives His Apostles He changes the Mandate from Mt. 10:6-7 “only the House of Israel” to NOW the WHOLE WORLD, thus making succession an absolute necessity.
The final passage I suggested is Mt. 28: 16-20
“16] And the eleven disciples [remaining Apostles after Judas hung himself] went into Galilee, unto the mountain where Jesus had ppointed them.  And seeing him they adored: but some doubted. …  Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: [“Commanded here means both taught you and demand of YOU] and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world.” … This teaching duplicates what Saint Mark relayed, but with more specificity.
*Again the 11 remaining Apostles are singled out and specified.
**Again we see the mandate from Mt, 10: 6-7 changed to the Entire World
***Here we see Christ specifying as a DEMAND that they [the Apostles] teach the whole world ALL that he Jesus had taught to THEM. And a final promise to be with THEM [the Church he founded] until the end of time.
Therefore any teaching that do not align with the Catholic Church on Faith beliefs and or Morals, ALSO do not have God’s approval. Amen!